Red Ganzhou

Ganzhou is the countrywide famous revolution field with the glorious revolution battle history and excellent revolution tradition. It is the important historic status of the revolution battle that Chinese Communist leaded the people in Gannan in the history of Chinese revolution and Chinese Communist. Especially during the period of agrarian revolution, Gannan Soviet Field is both the important part of central revolution base area and the important area of bushfighting of southern red army which was to strengthen the Chinese army and the class of building the country, the homeland of Soviet glorious revolution tradition. It¡¯s the history which chose Gannan to become the important birthplace of the thought of Mao Zedong, the place of temporary central government of Chinese Soviet Republic, the home position of Long March of the Red Army.

In 1919, May Fourth Movement drove the development of Gannan new culture movement. A lot of youths studied all round the country and educated the communism and took part in the Chinese Communist and the Socialism League of Youth who became the broadcasters of Marxism. During the period of the first civil war, with the broadcast of Marxism, the movement of workers and peasants developed flourishly. In August, 1926, Chinese Communist Ganzhou Branch was built which was the first communist organization in Gannan. Then the organizations found one after another which supported the Northern Expedition War. Under the leading of Chen Zanxian, the Worker Movement developed vigorously, and named ¡°Guangzhou first, Ganzhou second¡± which is highly appreciated by Zhang Tailei and Song Qingling.

In the early days of Agrarian Revolution, the poor peasants in Nankang, Gan County, Xinfeng, Yudu, Xunwu and Xingguo held great peasant armed rebellion under the leader of Party, built revolution base areas and local revolution army and began the Gannan revolution armed battle.

In January, 1929, Mao Zedong, Zhu de, Chen Yi leaded the New Fourth Army and broke through from Jinggang Hill. After one year of hard battle, the revolution base areas of southwest of Jiangxi and west of Fujian were built. From December, 1930 to September, 1931, Mao Zedong and Zhu De leaded the army and people in the Soviet area and put down the three besiegements and built the central revolution base area with the center of Ruijin. During the fourteen days began from Nov 7, 1931, Mao Zedong and Zhu De held the first congress meeting of Chinese Soviet and announced that the foundation of temporary government of the Republic of Chinese Soviet and the chairman Mao Zedong. And then Party and the government developed the area and achieved the success of the fourth besiegement. In the autumn of 1933, central base areas are fully developed to four provinces, sixty administrative counties with the population of 4.52 million, 84 thousands square kilometers, twenty-four counties, the population of the red army also reached 127,000. Politics, economy, culture, education, sanitation and physical education had deeply developed and the living condition was improved also. The whole base area appears flourishing.

Unfortunately, the battle in the central base area was seriously disturbed by the wrong leadership of Wang Ming since Nov, 1931. After Bo Gu came to Ruijin in Jan, 1933, the entirely push of left-leaning thought gave the battle and construction heavily hurt. During the fifth besiegement in Sep, 1933, the wrong thought of left-leaning totally excluded the correct leading of Mao Zedong and gave the leadership to Li De who was totally unfamiliar with the situation of China and the base area, unfamiliar with the character of the campaign, which was directly leading to the defeat of the fifth besiegement. In the middle of Oct, 1934, the Red Army was forced to leave the Soviet area and begin the Long March.

After the Long March, Xiang Ying, the commissioner of political bureau and vice president of central government of Soviet, and Chen Yi, the commander of Jiangxi military area, built the branch of Chinese Communist and led the bushfighting. The whole central soviet area lost the base area in the Feb, 1935. Xiang Ying and Chen Yi commanded the Red Army to start off from the south of Yudu and developed the bushfighting directed by the Chinese Communist. From the early Apr, 1935, they led the red army for the three-year bushfighting from Shangping District of Yudu to the border between Jiangxi and Guangdong.

After the Anti-Japanese War, Xiang Ying and Chen Yi led the guerilla of the Red Army by the border between Jiangxi and Guangdong and received the agreement of stopping the civil war and defending Japanese. The guerilla at the border between Jiangxi and Guangdong and that between Hunan and Guangdong were rebuilt the anti-Japanese militia of Jiangxi which was later called the first detachment of the fourth army and marched to the battlefront of Wannan. The guerilla at the border of Tingrui were also rebuilt the second detachment of the fourth army and marched there. After the department of the red army, Yang Shangkui and other comrades built the community in Youshan, Xinfeng and developed a series of battles. For the anti-communist behavior of Kuomintang, the communist party organization was heavily destroyed since the latter half year of 1940. In the summer of 1942, the leaders were forced to leave Gannan to Nanxiong of Guangdong.

In Sep, 1949, after the victory of Anti-Japanese War, Gannan Communist, who attend the battle in Guangdong, returned to Yousahn of Xinfeng with the troop of Dong River column and re-ignite the flame of revolutionary armed battle. In the spring of 1947 Five Mountains Committee and the army by the border of Guangdong, Jiangxi and Hunan of People¡¯s Liberty Army of China were founded. The committee and the column army of the border of the three provinces were also founded in Dec, 1948. The worker committee and the branch column led by Liu Jianhua was also found in Zhangdoukeng of Dayu in May, 1949. The forty-eighth troop, fifteenth corps of the fourth field army of people¡¯s liberation army of China initiated Gannan liberation battle and liberated Ganzhou on Aug 14, and till Sep 30, Gannan received fully liberation and get the final triumph.

In the thirty years from May Fourth Movement in 1919 to the liberation of Gannan, the red flag of land revolution was always standing straightly and revolution battles never stopped. The local organization and people in Gannan strived hard and contributed greatly for the revolution career of new democratism. Among the eighteen counties, cities and disctricts, there are thirteen Soviet counties with the population of 2,4 million. There are 330,000 who attended the red army, and 600,000 who attended defend troop, stretcher troop, transportation troop. There are 86,859 when they began the Long March with fifteen to sixteen thousand of Gannan. Martyrs sacrificed in the revolution reached the number of 108,200, 43% of the total number of Jiangxi, one sixteenth of the number of the country.

For the historic love knot of Gannan, the Party and country will not forget as well as the history and people. Since the foundation of China, the central Party, State Department and central leaders always care for the construction and development of Gannan, care for the working and living of the people. They gave benefits and favor on the policy and support on the people and property which push Gannan great development. Especially the third and fourth leadership took great care of the land and came one after another to inspect. In Sep, 1996, when inspecting Gannan, Jiang Zemin pointed out that during the period of revolution, people in Gannan followed the Party, sacrificed greatly for the country and formed glory tradition. We should never forget the people there and develop the spirit. In Aug, 2003, Hu Jingtao pointed out that Mao Zedong and other revolutionists received great achievement and left precious treasure for the nation¡¯s independency, the liberty of people and the wealth of the country. The revolution spirit and excellent tradition cultivated in the revolution struggle has great significance to us for the belief and working. These are strong spiritual power on the way straightforward and the affirmation, trust and hope.

The achievement of Gannan were written in the history and the hard construction will write another brilliant piece.